persistent.interfaces

Persistence Interfaces

interface persistent.interfaces.IPersistent[source]

Python persistent interface

A persistent object can be in one of several states:

  • Unsaved

    The object has been created but not saved in a data manager.

    In this state, the _p_changed attribute is non-None and false and the _p_jar attribute is None.

  • Saved

    The object has been saved and has not been changed since it was saved.

    In this state, the _p_changed attribute is non-None and false and the _p_jar attribute is set to a data manager.

  • Sticky

    This state is identical to the saved state except that the object cannot transition to the ghost state. This is a special state used by C methods of persistent objects to make sure that state is not unloaded in the middle of computation.

    In this state, the _p_changed attribute is non-None and false and the _p_jar attribute is set to a data manager.

    There is no Python API for detecting whether an object is in the sticky state.

  • Changed

    The object has been changed.

    In this state, the _p_changed attribute is true and the _p_jar attribute is set to a data manager.

  • Ghost

    the object is in memory but its state has not been loaded from the database (or its state has been unloaded). In this state, the object doesn’t contain any application data.

    In this state, the _p_changed attribute is None, and the _p_jar attribute is set to the data manager from which the object was obtained.

In all the above, _p_oid (the persistent object id) is set when _p_jar first gets set.

The following state transitions are possible:

  • Unsaved -> Saved

    This transition occurs when an object is saved in the database. This usually happens when an unsaved object is added to (e.g. as an attribute or item of) a saved (or changed) object and the transaction is committed.

  • Saved -> Changed Sticky -> Changed Ghost -> Changed

    This transition occurs when someone sets an attribute or sets _p_changed to a true value on a saved, sticky or ghost object. When the transition occurs, the persistent object is required to call the register() method on its data manager, passing itself as the only argument.

    Prior to ZODB 3.6, setting _p_changed to a true value on a ghost object was ignored (the object remained a ghost, and getting its _p_changed attribute continued to return None).

  • Saved -> Sticky

    This transition occurs when C code marks the object as sticky to prevent its deactivation.

  • Saved -> Ghost

    This transition occurs when a saved object is deactivated or invalidated. See discussion below.

  • Sticky -> Saved

    This transition occurs when C code unmarks the object as sticky to allow its deactivation.

  • Changed -> Saved

    This transition occurs when a transaction is committed. After saving the state of a changed object during transaction commit, the data manager sets the object’s _p_changed to a non-None false value.

  • Changed -> Ghost

    This transition occurs when a transaction is aborted. All changed objects are invalidated by the data manager by an abort.

  • Ghost -> Saved

    This transition occurs when an attribute or operation of a ghost is accessed and the object’s state is loaded from the database.

Note that there is a separate C API that is not included here. The C API requires a specific data layout and defines the sticky state.

About Invalidation, Deactivation and the Sticky & Ghost States

The sticky state is intended to be a short-lived state, to prevent an object’s state from being discarded while we’re in C routines. It is an error to invalidate an object in the sticky state.

Deactivation is a request that an object discard its state (become a ghost). Deactivation is an optimization, and a request to deactivate may be ignored. There are two equivalent ways to request deactivation:

  • call _p_deactivate()
  • set _p_changed to None

There are two ways to invalidate an object: call the _p_invalidate() method (preferred) or delete its _p_changed attribute. This cannot be ignored, and is used when semantics require invalidation. Normally, an invalidated object transitions to the ghost state. However, some objects cannot be ghosts. When these objects are invalidated, they immediately reload their state from their data manager, and are then in the saved state.

_p_jar

The data manager for the object.

The data manager should implement IPersistentDataManager (note that this constraint is not enforced).

If there is no data manager, then this is None.

Once assigned to a data manager, an object cannot be re-assigned to another.

_p_oid

The object id.

It is up to the data manager to assign this.

The special value None is reserved to indicate that an object id has not been assigned. Non-None object ids must be non-empty strings. The 8-byte string consisting of 8 NUL bytes (‘’) is reserved to identify the database root object.

Once assigned an OID, an object cannot be re-assigned another.

_p_changed

The persistent state of the object.

This is one of:

None – The object is a ghost.

false but not None – The object is saved (or has never been saved).

true – The object has been modified since it was last saved.

The object state may be changed by assigning or deleting this attribute; however, assigning None is ignored if the object is not in the saved state, and may be ignored even if the object is in the saved state.

At and after ZODB 3.6, setting _p_changed to a true value for a ghost object activates the object; prior to 3.6, setting _p_changed to a true value on a ghost object was ignored.

Note that an object can transition to the changed state only if it has a data manager. When such a state change occurs, the ‘register’ method of the data manager must be called, passing the persistent object.

Deleting this attribute forces invalidation independent of existing state, although it is an error if the sticky state is current.

_p_serial

The object serial number.

This member is used by the data manager to distiguish distinct revisions of a given persistent object.

This is an 8-byte string (not Unicode).

_p_mtime

The object’s modification time (read-only).

This is a float, representing seconds since the epoch (as returned by time.time).

_p_state

The object’s persistence state token.

Must be one of GHOST, UPTODATE, CHANGED, or STICKY.

_p_estimated_size

An estimate of the object’s size in bytes.

May be set by the data manager.

__getattribute__(name)

Handle activating ghosts before returning an attribute value.

“Special” attributes and ‘_p_*’ attributes don’t require activation.

__setattr__(name, value)

Handle activating ghosts before setting an attribute value.

“Special” attributes and ‘_p_*’ attributes don’t require activation.

__delattr__(name)

Handle activating ghosts before deleting an attribute value.

“Special” attributes and ‘_p_*’ attributes don’t require activation.

__getstate__()

Get the object data.

The state should not include persistent attributes (“_p_name”). The result must be picklable.

__setstate__(state)

Set the object data.

__reduce__()

Reduce an object to contituent parts for serialization.

_p_activate()

Activate the object.

Change the object to the saved state if it is a ghost.

_p_deactivate()

Deactivate the object.

Possibly change an object in the saved state to the ghost state. It may not be possible to make some persistent objects ghosts, and, for optimization reasons, the implementation may choose to keep an object in the saved state.

_p_invalidate()

Invalidate the object.

Invalidate the object. This causes any data to be thrown away, even if the object is in the changed state. The object is moved to the ghost state; further accesses will cause object data to be reloaded.

_p_getattr(name)

Test whether the base class must handle the name

The method unghostifies the object, if necessary. The method records the object access, if necessary.

This method should be called by subclass __getattribute__ implementations before doing anything else. If the method returns True, then __getattribute__ implementations must delegate to the base class, Persistent.

_p_setattr(name, value)

Save persistent meta data

This method should be called by subclass __setattr__ implementations before doing anything else. If it returns true, then the attribute was handled by the base class.

The method unghostifies the object, if necessary. The method records the object access, if necessary.

_p_delattr(name)

Delete persistent meta data

This method should be called by subclass __delattr__ implementations before doing anything else. If it returns true, then the attribute was handled by the base class.

The method unghostifies the object, if necessary. The method records the object access, if necessary.

interface persistent.interfaces.IPersistentDataManager[source]

Provide services for managing persistent state.

This interface is used by a persistent object to interact with its data manager in the context of a transaction.

_cache

The pickle cache associated with this connection.

setstate(object)

Load the state for the given object.

The object should be in the ghost state. The object’s state will be set and the object will end up in the saved state.

The object must provide the IPersistent interface.

oldstate(obj, tid)

Return copy of ‘obj’ that was written by transaction ‘tid’.

The returned object does not have the typical metadata (_p_jar, _p_oid, _p_serial) set. I’m not sure how references to other peristent objects are handled.

Parameters obj: a persistent object from this Connection. tid: id of a transaction that wrote an earlier revision.

Raises KeyError if tid does not exist or if tid deleted a revision of obj.

register(object)

Register an IPersistent with the current transaction.

This method must be called when the object transitions to the changed state.

A subclass could override this method to customize the default policy of one transaction manager for each thread.

interface persistent.interfaces.IPickleCache[source]

API of the cache for a ZODB connection.

__getitem__(oid)

-> the persistent object for OID.

o Raise KeyError if not found.

__setitem__(oid, value)

Save the persistent object under OID.

o ‘oid’ must be a string, else raise ValueError.

o Raise KeyError on duplicate

__delitem__(oid)

Remove the persistent object for OID.

o ‘oid’ must be a string, else raise ValueError.

o Raise KeyError if not found.

get(oid, default=None)

-> the persistent object for OID.

o Return ‘default’ if not found.

mru(oid)

Move the element corresonding to ‘oid’ to the head.

o Raise KeyError if no element is found.

__len__()

-> the number of OIDs in the cache.

items()

-> a sequence of tuples (oid, value) for cached objects.

o Only includes items in ‘data’ (no p-classes).

ringlen()

-> the number of persistent objects in the ring.

o Only includes items in the ring (no ghosts or p-classes).

lru_items()

-> a sequence of tuples (oid, value) for cached objects.

o Tuples will be in LRU order.

o Only includes items in the ring (no ghosts or p-classes).

klass_items()

-> a sequence of tuples (oid, value) for cached p-classes.

o Only includes persistent classes.

incrgc()

Perform an incremental garbage collection sweep.

o Reduce number of non-ghosts to ‘cache_size’, if possible.

o Ghostify in LRU order.

o Skip dirty or sticky objects.

o Quit once we get down to ‘cache_size’.

full_sweep()

Perform a full garbage collection sweep.

o Reduce number of non-ghosts to 0, if possible.

o Ghostify all non-sticky / non-changed objecs.

minimize()

Alias for ‘full_sweep’.

o XXX?

new_ghost(oid, obj)

Add the given (ghost) object to the cache.

Also, set its _p_jar and _p_oid, and ensure it is in the GHOST state.

If the object doesn’t define ‘_p_oid’ / ‘_p_jar’, raise.

If the object’s ‘_p_oid’ is not None, raise.

If the object’s ‘_p_jar’ is not None, raise.

If ‘oid’ is already in the cache, raise.

reify(to_reify)

Reify the indicated objects.

o If ‘to_reify’ is a string, treat it as an OID.

o Otherwise, iterate over it as a sequence of OIDs.

o For each OID, if present in ‘data’ and in GHOST state:

o Call ‘_p_activate’ on the object.

o Add it to the ring.

o If any OID is present but not in GHOST state, skip it.

o Raise KeyErrory if any OID is not present.

invalidate(to_invalidate)

Invalidate the indicated objects.

o If ‘to_invalidate’ is a string, treat it as an OID.

o Otherwise, iterate over it as a sequence of OIDs.

o Any OID corresponding to a p-class will cause the corresponding
p-class to be removed from the cache.
o For all other OIDs, ghostify the corrsponding object and
remove it from the ring.
debug_info()

Return debugging data about objects in the cache.

o Return a sequence of tuples, (oid, refcount, typename, state).

update_object_size_estimation(oid, new_size)

Update the cache’s size estimation for ‘oid’, if known to the cache.

cache_size

Target size of the cache

cache_drain_resistance

Factor for draining cache below target size

cache_non_ghost_count

Number of non-ghosts in the cache (XXX how is it different from ringlen?

cache_data

Property: copy of our ‘data’ dict

cache_klass_count

Property: len of ‘persistent_classes’

Implementations

This package provides one implementation of IPersistent that should be extended.

class persistent.Persistent

Bases: object